Częstochowa – a city in southern Poland, Czestochowa county seat. In the years 1975-1999 was the capital of the region of Czestochowa. After the administrative reform was included in the province of Silesia. Czestochowa is situated on the Warta River in mesoregions physico belonging to the Krakow-Czestochowa Upland, called Jura. This is a 12 town in Poland in terms of population, has 270 000 inhabitants. Czestochowa is the central city of Czestochowa agglomeration, as well as the largest center of economic, cultural and administrative levels in the northern sub-region of Silesia.
The town has a basilica and monastery of Jasna Gora considered by some Christians a miraculous image of Our Lady of Czestochowa – the main center of Marian devotion and pilgrimage in Poland. The monastery at Jasna Gora is also the largest, most prestigious, and most visited monuments in Czestochowa. Tourism is mainly connected with the pilgrimages to Our Lady of Czestochowa. Every year, come to Jasna Gora 3.5 – 4 million pilgrims and tourists from 81 countries worldwide.
The first mention of Czestochowa comes from 1220, of the document the Bishop of Cracow, Iwo Odrowąż. Settlement was given city rights in 1370. Czestochowa experienced rapid development in the fourteenth century, which fostered the location of the trail connects with the Greater Poland from Little Poland. Won fame in 1655, the defense of the Jasna Gora monastery, which from November 18, was besieged by the Swedes. Swedes has repeatedly attempted to force the Polish crew to surrender the fortress, but in December, the Swedish army finally withdrew from the Jasna Gora. In 1909 the city was the Great Exhibition of Agro-Industry. Pope John Paul II visited Czestochowa six times, in 1991 the city authorities gave key to its gate, and the title of Honorary Citizen – Czestochowa became the first city in the world, from whom received an award.
Czestochowa is the main center of Częstochowa Industrial District, the third largest in Silesia. From the Middle Ages there developed metal industry, thanks to the occurrence amounts large iron ore. The largest and most famous factories in the city include: ISD Huta Czestochowa, TRW Automotive, CSF Poland (group Cooper Standard), Brembo Poland, CGR Poland, Czestochowa New Coking, Guardian Industries Poland, Stölzle-Czestochowa, Iron Foundry WULKAN – the oldest plant operating in the city, was founded in 1894. Dospel – manufacturer of ventilation systems. Among the universities, which operates in city 12, the largest are the Pedagogical University, Technical University of Czestochowa, Polonia University and the Central School of the State Fire Service. In Czestochowa works Art Schools Complex them. Jacek Malczewski, Music Schools them. Marcin Zebrowski and Ballet Social School. Since 1945, working Częstochowa Philharmonic. Theatre in Czestochowa began operating in 1927. In years the 20 Twentieth century the present home of the theater – built specifically for the needs of the building, in 1954, was given the name Adam Mickiewicz. In addition to the Jasna Gora monastery, a number of other galleries and museums, among others Unique Matchsticks Production Museum – open a factory using the technology of the third decade of the twentieth century.
Sports in Częstochowa is mainly volleyball and slag, while work in city a wide variety of sports clubs. The most famous are club volleyball AZS Czestochowa and Czestochowa Włókniarz speedway club. These teams represent the highest world level in their respective disciplines, as evidenced by developments in the international arena.
Eagles’ Nests Trail – Route in Poland, running through the province Lesser Poland and Silesia. Begin in Krakow, ends in Częstochowa. It has a length of 164 km. It takes its name from lying on the ruins of castles and fortresses, known eagle nests because of their location on the rocks of up to 30 meters in height. More than a dozen forts were founded at Krakow-Czestochowa Jura of having to defend the commercial route from Krakow to the Greater Polish and the nearby border. Traditionally, the Eagles Nests Trail runs away from Krakow to Czestochowa and includes castles and castle ruins Korzkiew, Ojców, Pieskowa Skała, Rabsztyn, Smolen, Pilica, Ogrodzieniec, Bobolice, Mirow, Olsztyn (near Czestochowa).
The closest international airport is a regional port Silesian Voivodeship – Katowice Airport in Pyrzowice. It is located about 60 km south of Czestochowa.